Drug: Adderall

A single-entity amphetamine product combining the neutral sulfate salts of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, with the dextroisomer of amphetamine saccharate and d, l-amphetamine aspartate. EACH TABLET CONTAINS: 5 mg 7.5 mg 10 mg. 12.5 mg. 15 mg 20 mg. 30 mg. Dextroamphetamine Saccharate 1.25 mg 1.875 mg 2.5 mg 3.125 mg 3.75 mg 5 mg 7.5 mg Amphetamine Aspartate Monohydrate Equivalent 1.25* mg 1.875 mg† 2.5 mg‡ 3.125 mg§ 3.75 mg¶ 5 mg# 7.5 mgÞ Dextroamphetamine Sulfate, USP 1.25 mg 1.875 mg 2.5 mg 3.125 mg 3.75 mg 5 mg 7.5 mg Amphetamine Sulfate, USP 1.25 mg 1.875 mg 2.5 mg 3.125 mg 3.75 mg 5 mg 7.5 mg T otal Amphetamine Base Equivalence 3.13 mg 4.7 mg 6.3 mg 7.8 mg 9.4 mg 12.6 mg 18.8 mg *1.25 mg of Amphetamine Aspartate Monohydrate equivalent to 1.17 mg Amphetamine Aspartate (Anhydrous) as supplied
†1.875 mg of Amphetamine Aspartate Monohydrate equivalent to 1.755 mg Amphetamine Aspartate (Anhydrous) as supplied
‡2.5 mg of Amphetamine Aspartate Monohydrate equivalent to 2.34 mg Amphetamine Aspartate (Anhydrous) as supplied
§3.125 mg of Amphetamine Aspartate Monohydrate equivalent to 2.925 mg Amphetamine Aspartate (Anhydrous) as supplied
¶ 3.75 mg of Amphetamine Aspartate Monohydrate equivalent to 3.51 mg Amphetamine Aspartate (Anhydrous) as supplied
# 5 mg of Amphetamine Aspartate Monohydrate equivalent to 4.6 mg Amphetamine Aspartate (Anhydrous) as supplied
Þ7.5 mg of Amphetamine Aspartate Monohydrate equivalent to 7.03 mg Inactive Ingredients Colloidal silicon dioxide, compressible sugar, corn starch, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and saccharin sodium. Colors Adderall® 5 mg is a white to off-white tablet, which contains no color additives. Adderall® 7.5 mg and 10 mg contain FD&C Blue #1 Aluminum Lake as a color additive. Adderall® 12.5 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg and 30 mg contain FD&C Yellow #6 Aluminum Lake as a color additive.

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Cardiovascular Palpitations, tachycardia, elevation of blood pressure, sudden death, myocardial infarction. There have been isolated reports of cardiomyopathy associated with chronic amphetamine use. Central Nervous Sys tem Psychotic episodes at recommended doses, overstimulation, restlessness, irritability, euphoria, dyskinesia, dysphoria, depression, tremor, tics, aggression, anger, logorrhea, dermatillomania. Eye Disorders Vision blurred, mydriasis. Gastrointestinal Dryness of the mouth, unpleasant taste, diarrhea, constipation, other gastrointestinal disturbances. Anorexia and weight loss may occur as undesirable effects. Allergic Urticaria, rash, hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema and anaphylaxis. Serious skin rashes, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported. Endocrine Impotence, changes in libido. Skin Alopecia. Drug Abuse And Dependence Adderall® (Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Aspartate, Dextroamphetamine Sulfate and Amphetamine Sulfate Tablets) is a Schedule II controlled substance. Amphetamines have been extensively abused. Tolerance, extreme psychological dependence, and severe social disability have occurred. There are reports of patients who have increased the dosage to levels many times higher than recommended. Abrupt cessation following prolonged high dosage administration results in extreme fatigue and mental depression; changes are also noted on the sleep EEG. Manifestations of chronic intoxication with amphetamines include severe dermatoses, marked insomnia, irritability, hyperactivity, and personality changes. The most severe manifestation of chronic intoxication is psychosis, often clinically indistinguishable from schizophrenia. Read the Adderall (amphetamine, dextroamphetamine mixed salts) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Regardless of indication, amphetamines should be administered at the lowest effective dosage, and dosage should be individually adjusted according to the therapeutic needs and response of the patient. Late evening doses should be avoided because of the resulting insomnia. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Not recommended for children under 3 years of age. In children from 3 to 5 years of age, start with 2.5 mg daily; daily dosage may be raised in increments of 2.5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. In children 6 years of age and older, start with 5 mg once or twice daily; daily dosage may be raised in increments of 5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. Only in rare cases will it be necessary to exceed a total of 40 mg per day. Give first dose on awakening; additional doses (1 or 2) at intervals of 4 to 6 hours. Where possible, drug administration should be interrupted occasionally to determine if there is a recurrence of behavioral symptoms sufficient to require continued therapy. Narcolepsy Usual dose 5 mg to 60 mg per day in divided doses, depending on the individual patient response. Narcolepsy seldom occurs in children under 12 years of age; however, when it does, dextroamphetamine sulfate may be used. The suggested initial dose for patients aged 6 to 12 is 5 mg daily; daily dose may be raised in increments of 5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. In patients 12 years of age and older, start with 10 mg daily; daily dosage may be raised in increments of 10 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. If bothersome adverse reactions appear (e.g., insomnia or anorexia), dosage should be reduced. Give first dose on awakening; additional doses (1 or 2) at intervals of 4 to 6 hours.

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Acidifying Agents Gastrointestinal acidifying agents (guanethidine, reserpine, glutamic acid HCl, ascorbic acid, fruit juices, etc.) lower absorption of amphetamines. Urinary Acidifying Agents (ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, etc.) increase the concentration of the ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby increasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines. Adrenergic Blockers Adrenergic blockers are inhibited by amphetamines. Alkalinizing Agents Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate, etc.) increase absorption of amphetamines. Coadministration of Adderall® and gastrointestinal alkalizing agents, such as antacids, should be avoided. Urinary alkalinizing agents (acetazolamide, some thiazides) increase the concentration of the non-ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby decreasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents increase blood levels and therefore potentiate the actions of amphetamines. Antidepressants, Tricyclic Amphetamines may enhance the activity of tricyclic or sympathomimetic agents; d-amphetamine with desipramine or protriptyline and possibly other tricyclics cause striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d-amphetamine in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated. MAO Inhibitors MAOI antidepressants, as well as a metabolite of furazolidone, slow amphetamine metabolism. This slowing potentiates amphetamines, increasing their effect on the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines from adrenergic nerve endings; this can cause headaches and other signs of hypertensive crisis. A variety of neurological toxic effects and malignant hyperpyrexia can occur, sometimes with fatal results. Antihistamines Amphetamines may counteract the sedative effect of antihistamines. Antihypertensives Amphetamines may antagonize the hypotensive effects of antihypertensives. Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine blocks dopamine and norepinephrine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines, and can be used to treat amphetamine poisoning. Ethosuximide Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of ethosuximide. Haloperidol Haloperidol blocks dopamine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines. Lithium Carbonate The anorectic and stimulatory effects of amphetamines may be inhibited by lithium carbonate. Meperidine Amphetamines potentiate the analgesic effect of meperidine. Methenamine Therapy Urinary excretion of amphetamines is increased, and efficacy is reduced, by acidifying agents used in methenamine therapy. Norepinephrine Amphetamines enhance the adrenergic effect of norepinephrine. Phenobarbital Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenobarbital; coadministration of phenobarbital may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action. Phenytoin Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenytoin; coadministration of phenytoin may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action. Propoxyphene In cases of propoxyphene overdosage, amphetamine CNS stimulation is potentiated and fatal convulsions can occur. Proton Pump Inhibitors PPIs act on proton pumps by blocking acid production, thereby reducing gastric acidity. When Adderall XR® (20 mg single-dose) was administered concomitantly with the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole (40 mg once daily for 14 days), the median T of d-amphetamine was decreased by 1.25 hours (from 4 to 2.75 hours), and the median T of l-amphetamine was decreased by 2.5 hours (from 5.5 to 3 hours), compared to Adderall® XR administered alone. The AUC and C of each moiety were unaffected. Therefore, coadministration of Adderall® and proton pump inhibitors should be monitored for changes in clinical effect. Veratrum Alkaloids Amphetamines inhibit the hypotensive effect of veratrum alkaloids. Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions Amphetamines can cause a significant elevation in plasma corticosteroid levels. This increase is greatest in the evening. Amphetamines may interfere with urinary steroid determinations Read the Adderall Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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Adderall® is indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Narcolepsy. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) A diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; DSM-IV®) implies the presence of hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment and were present before age 7 years. The symptoms must cause clinically significant impairment, e.g., in social, academic, or occupational functioning, and be present in two or more settings, e.g., school (or work) and at home. The symptoms must not be better accounted for by another mental disorder. For the Inattentive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: lack of attention to details/careless mistakes; lack of sustained attention; poor listener; failure to follow through on tasks; poor organization; avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort; loses things; easily distracted; forgetful. For the Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: fidgeting/squirming; leaving seat; inappropriate running/climbing; difficulty with quiet activities; “on the go;” excessive talking; blurting answers; can't wait turn; intrusive. The Combined Type requires both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive criteria to be met. Special Diagnostic Considerations Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use not only of medical but of special psychological, educational, and social resources. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the child and not solely on the presence of the required number of DSM-IV® characteristics. Need For Comprehensive Treatment Program Adderall® is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients with this syndrome. Drug treatment may not be indicated for all children with this syndrome. Stimulants are not intended for use in the child who exhibits symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is often helpful. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician's assessment of the chronicity and severity of the child's symptoms. Long-Term Use The effectiveness of Adderall® for long-term use has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to use Adderall® for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.

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Advanced arteriosclerosis, symptomatic cardiovascular disease, moderate to severe hypertension, hyperthyroidism, known hypersensitivity or idiosyncrasy to the sympathomimetic amines, glaucoma. Agitated states. Patients with a history of drug abuse. During or within 14 days following the administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (hypertensive crises may result). Last reviewed on RxList: 2/27/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Individual patient response to amphetamines varies widely. Toxic symptoms may occur idiosyncratically at low doses. Symptoms Manifestations of acute overdosage with amphetamines include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rapid respiration, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic states, hyperpyrexia and rhabdomyolysis. Fatigue and depression usually follow the central stimulation. Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension and circulatory collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning is usually preceded by convulsions and coma. Treatment Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center for up to date guidance and advice. Management of acute amphetamine intoxication is largely symptomatic and includes gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, administration of a cathartic and sedation. Experience with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is inadequate to permit recommendation in this regard. Acidification of the urine increases amphetamine excretion, but is believed to increase risk of acute renal failure if myoglobinuria is present. If acute, severe hypertension complicates amphetamine overdosage, administration of intravenous phentolamine has been suggested. However, a gradual drop in blood pressure will usually result when sufficient sedation has been achieved. Chlorpromazine antagonizes the central stimulant effects of amphetamines and can be used to treat amphetamine intoxication.

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Adderall® (Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Aspartate, Dextroamphetamine Sulfate and Amphetamine Sulfate Tablets) is supplied as follows: 5 mg: White to off-white, round, flat-faced beveled edge tablet with four partial bisects debossed with 5 on one side and debossed with dp on the other side. They are available in bottles of 100 tablets. 7.5 mg: Blue, oval, biconvex tablet with two partial bisects debossed with 7.5 on one side and one full bisect and two partial bisects debossed with d | p on the other side. They are available in bottles of 100 tablets. 10 mg: Blue, round, biconvex tablet with one full bisect and two partial bisects debossed with 1 | 0 on one side and debossed with dp on the other side. They are available in bottles of 100 tablets. 12.5 mg: Peach, round, flat-faced beveled edge tablet debossed with 12.5 on one side and one full bisect and two partial bisects debossed with d | p on the other side. They are available in bottles of 100 tablets. 15 mg: Peach, oval, biconvex tablet with two partial bisects debossed with 15 on one side and one full bisect and two partial bisects debossed with d | p on the other side. They are available in bottles of 100 tablets. 20 mg: Peach, round, biconvex tablet with one full bisect and two partial bisects debossed with 2 | 0 on one side and debossed with dp on the other side. They are available in bottles of 100 tablets. 30 mg: Peach, round, flat-faced beveled edge tablet with one full bisect and 2 partial bisects debossed with 3 | 0 on one side and dp on the other side. They are available in bottles of 100 tablets. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required). KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. Teva Pharmaceuticals, USA, Sellersville, PA 18960. Revised: 6/2013 Last reviewed on RxList: 2/27/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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General The least amount of amphetamine feasible should be prescribed or dispensed at one time in order to minimize the possibility of overdosage. Adderall® should be used with caution in patients who use other sympathomimetic drugs. Tics Amphetamines have been reported to exacerbate motor and phonic tics and Tourette's syndrome. Therefore, clinical evaluation for tics and Tourette's syndrome in children and their families should precede use of stimulant medications. Information for Patients Amphetamines may impair the ability of the patient to engage in potentially hazardous activities such as operating machinery or vehicles; the patient should therefore be cautioned accordingly. Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with amphetamine or dextroamphetamine and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide is available for Adderall®. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document. Carcinogenesis /Mutagenesis and Impairment of Fertility No evidence of carcinogenicity was found in studies in which d,l-amphetamine (enantiomer ratio of 1:1) was administered to mice and rats in the diet for 2 years at doses of up to 30 mg/kg/day in male mice, 19 mg/kg/day in female mice, and 5 mg/kg/day in male and female rats. These doses are approximately 2.4, 1.5, and 0.8 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose of 30 mg/day [child] on a mg/m body surface area basis. Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in Adderall® (immediate-release)(d- to l- ratio of 3:1), was not clastogenic in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test in vivo and was negative when tested in the E. coli component of the Ames test in vitro. d, l-Amphetamine (1:1 enantiomer ratio) has been reported to produce a positive response in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, an equivocal response in the Ames test, and negative responses in the in vitro sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration assays. Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in Adderall® (immediate-release)(d- to l- ratio of 3:1), did not adversely affect fertility or early embryonic development in the rat at doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the maximum recommended human dose of 30 mg/day on a mg/m body surface area basis). Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in Adderall® (d- to l- ratio of 3:1), had no apparent effects on embryofetal morphological development or survival when orally administered to pregnant rats and rabbits throughout the period of organogenesis at doses of up to 6 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 1.5 and 8 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose of 30 mg/day [child] on a mg/m² body surface area basis. Fetal malformations and death have been reported in mice following parenteral administration of d-amphetamine doses of 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times that of a human dose of 30 mg/day [child] on a mg/m² basis) or greater to pregnant animals. Administration of these doses was also associated with severe maternal toxicity. A number of studies in rodents indicate that prenatal or early postnatal exposure to amphetamine (d- or d,l-), at doses similar to those used clinically, can result in long-term neurochemical and behavioral alterations. Reported behavioral effects include learning and memory deficits, altered locomotor activity, and changes in sexual function. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. There has been one report of severe congenital bony deformity, tracheo-esophageal fistula, and anal atresia (vater association) in a baby born to a woman who took dextroamphetamine sulfate with lovastatin during the first trimester of pregnancy. Amphetamines should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nonteratogenic Effects Infants born to mothers dependent on amphetamines have an increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight. Also, these infants may experience symptoms of withdrawal as demonstrated by dysphoria, including agitation, and significant lassitude. Usage In Nursing Mothers Amphetamines are excreted in human milk. Mothers taking amphetamines should be advised to refrain from nursing. Pediatric Use Long-term effects of amphetamines in children have not been well established. Amphetamines are not recommended for use in children under 3 years of age with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder described under INDICATIONS AND USAGE. Geriatric Use Adderall® has not been studied in the geriatric population. Last reviewed on RxList: 2/27/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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