Drug: Augmentin

AUGMENTIN is an oral antibacterial combination consisting of amoxicillin and the beta-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanate potassium (the potassium salt of clavulanic acid). Amoxicillin is an analog of ampicillin, derived from the basic penicillin nucleus, 6-aminopenicillanic acid. The amoxicillin molecular formula is C16H19N3O5S•3H2O, and the molecular weight is 419.46. Chemically, amoxicillin is (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-Amino-2-(phydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate and may be represented structurally as: Clavulanic acid is produced by the fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus. It is a beta-lactam structurally related to the penicillins and possesses the ability to inactivate some beta-lactamases by blocking the active sites of these enzymes. The clavulanate potassium molecular formula is C8H8KNO5, and the molecular weight is 237.25. Chemically, clavulanate potassium is potassium (Z)(2R,5R)-3-(2-hydroxyethylidene)-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]-heptane-2-carboxylate and may be represented structurally as: Inactive Ingredients
  • Tablets-Colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium starch glycolate, and titanium dioxide. Each tablet of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium contains 0.63 mEq potassium.
  • Powder for Oral Suspension-Colloidal silicon dioxide, flavorings, xanthan gum, and one or more of the following: hypromellose, mannitol, silica gel, silicon dioxide, succinic acid,
  • Chewable Tablets-Colloidal silicon dioxide, flavorings, magnesium stearate, mannitol, and one or more of the following: D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Red No. 40, glycine, sodium saccharin, and aspartame. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
    • Each 125-mg chewable tablet and each 5 mL of reconstituted 125/5 mL oral suspension of AUGMENTIN contains 0.16 mEq potassium
    • Each 250-mg chewable tablet and each 5 mL of reconstituted 250/5 mL oral suspension of AUGMENTIN contains 0.32 mEq potassium
    • Each 200-mg chewable tablet and each 5 mL of reconstituted 200/5 mL oral suspension of AUGMENTIN contains 0.14 mEq potassium
    • Each 400-mg chewable tablet and each 5 mL of reconstituted 400/5 mL oral suspension of AUGMENTIN contains 0.29 mEq potassium sodium saccharin, and aspartame. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
  • Anaphylactic reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Hepatic Dysfunction [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • CDAD [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The most frequently reported adverse reactions were diarrhea/loose stools (9%), nausea (3%), skin rashes and urticaria (3%), vomiting (1%) and vaginitis (1%). Less than 3% of patients discontinued therapy because of drug-related adverse reactions. The overall incidence of adverse reactions, and in particular diarrhea, increased with the higher recommended dose. Other less frequently reported adverse reactions ( < 1%) include: Abdominal discomfort, flatulence, and headache. In pediatric patients (aged 2 months to 12 years), 1 US/Canadian clinical trial was conducted which compared 45/6.4 mg/kg/day (divided every 12 hours) of AUGMENTIN for 10 days versus 40/10 mg/kg/day (divided every 8 hours) of AUGMENTIN for 10 days in the treatment of acute otitis media. A total of 575 patients were enrolled, and only the suspension formulations were used in this trial. Overall, the adverse reactions seen were comparable to that noted above; however, there were differences in the rates of diarrhea, skin rashes/urticaria, and diaper area rashes. [See Clinical Studies] Postmarketing Experience In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the following have been identified during postmarketing use of AUGMENTIN. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to AUGMENTIN. Gastrointestinal Indigestion, gastritis, stomatitis, glossitis, black “hairy” tongue, mucocutaneous candidiasis, enterocolitis, and hemorrhagic/pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] Hypersensitivity Reactions Pruritus, angioedema, serum sickness–like reactions (urticaria or skin rash accompanied by arthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, and frequently fever), erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, hypersensitivity vasculitis, and cases of exfoliative dermatitis (including toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been reported. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] Liver Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice, increases in serum transaminases (AST and/or ALT), serum bilirubin, and/or alkaline phosphatase, has been reported with AUGMENTIN. It has been reported more commonly in the elderly, in males, or in patients on prolonged treatment. The histologic findings on liver biopsy have consisted of predominantly cholestatic, hepatocellular, or mixed cholestatic-hepatocellular changes. The onset of signs/symptoms of hepatic dysfunction may occur during or several weeks after therapy has been discontinued. The hepatic dysfunction, which may be severe, is usually reversible. Deaths have been reported. [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] Renal Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, and crystalluria have been reported. [see OVERDOSAGE] Hemic and Lymphatic Systems Anemia, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena. Thrombocytosis was noted in less than 1% of the patients treated with AUGMENTIN. There have been reports of increased prothrombin time in patients receiving AUGMENTIN and anticoagulant therapy concomitantly. [see DRUG INTERACTIONS] Central Nervous System Agitation, anxiety, behavioral changes, confusion, convulsions, dizziness, insomnia, and reversible hyperactivity have been reported. Miscellaneous Tooth discoloration (brown, yellow, or gray staining) has been reported. Most reports occurred in pediatric patients. Discoloration was reduced or eliminated with brushing or dental cleaning in most cases. Read the Augmentin (amoxicillin clavulanate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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AUGMENTIN may be taken without regard to meals; however, absorption of clavulanate potassium is enhanced when AUGMENTIN is administered at the start of a meal. To minimize the potential for gastrointestinal intolerance, AUGMENTIN should be taken at the start of a meal. Adults The usual adult dose is one 500-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN every 12 hours or one 250 mg tablet of AUGMENTIN every 8 hours. For more severe infections and infections of the respiratory tract, the dose should be one 875-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN every 12 hours or one 500-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN every 8 hours. Adults who have difficulty swallowing may be given the 125 mg/5 mL or 250 mg/5 mL suspension in place of the 500-mg tablet. The 200 mg/5 mL suspension or the 400 mg/5 mL suspension may be used in place of the 875-mg tablet. Two 250-mg tablets of AUGMENTIN should not be substituted for one 500-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN. Since both the 250-mg and 500-mg tablets of AUGMENTIN contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (125 mg, as the potassium salt), two 250-mg tablets are not equivalent to one 500-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN. The 250-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN and the 250-mg chewable tablet should not be substituted for each other, as they are not interchangeable. The 250-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN and the 250-mg chewable tablet do not contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (as the potassium salt). The 250-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN contains 125 mg of clavulanic acid, whereas the 250-mg chewable tablet contains 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid. Pediatric Patients Based on the amoxicillin component, AUGMENTIN should be dosed as follows: Neonates and Infants Aged < 12 weeks ( < 3 months) The recommended dose of AUGMENTIN is 30 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours, based on the amoxicillin component. Experience with the 200 mg/5 mL formulation in this age group is limited, and thus, use of the 125 mg/5 mL oral suspension is recommended. Patients Aged 12 weeks (3 months) and Older See dosing regimens provided in Table 1. The every 12 hour regimen is recommended as it is associated with significantly less diarrhea [see Clinical Studies]. However, the every 12 hour suspension (200 mg/5 mL and 400 mg/5 mL) and chewable tablets (200 mg and 400 mg) contain aspartame and should not be used by phenylketonurics. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] Table 1: Dosing in Patients Aged 12 weeks (3 months) and Older
INFECTION DOSING REGIMEN Every 12 hours Every 8 hours   200 mg/5 mL or 400 mg/5 mL oral suspensiona 125 mg/5 mL or 250 mg/5 mL oral suspensiona Otitis mediab, sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and more severe infections 45 mg/kg/day every 12 hours 40 mg/kg/day every 8 hours Less severe infections 25 mg/kg/day every 12 hours 20 mg/kg/day every 8 hours aEach strength of suspension of AUGMENTIN is available as a chewable tablet for use by older children.
bDuration of therapy studied and recommended for acute otitis media is 10 days. Patients Weighing 40 kg or More Pediatric patients weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to adult recommendations. The 250-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN should not be used until the child weighs at least 40 kg, due to the different amoxicillin to clavulanic acid ratios in the 250-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN (250/125) versus the 250-mg chewable tablet of AUGMENTIN (250/62.5). Patients with Renal Impairment Patients with impaired renal function do not generally require a reduction in dose unless the impairment is severe. Renal impairment patients with a glomerular filtration rate of < 30 mL/min should not receive the 875-mg dose. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 10 to 30 mL/min should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 12 hours, depending on the severity of the infection. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/min should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. Hemodialysis patients should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. They should receive an additional dose both during and at the end of dialysis. Directions for Mixing Oral Suspension Prepare a suspension at time of dispensing as follows: Tap bottle until all the powder flows freely. Add approximately 2/3 of the total amount of water for reconstitution (see Table 2 below) and shake vigorously to suspend powder. Add remainder of the water and again shake vigorously. Table 2: Amount of Water for Mixing Oral Suspension
Strength Bottle Size Amount of Water for Reconstitution Contents of Each Teaspoonful (5 mL) 125 mg/5 mL 75 mL 100 mL 150 mL 67 mL 90 mL 134 mL 125 mg amoxicillin and 31.25 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt 200 mg/5 mL 50 mL 75 mL 100 mL 50 mL 75 mL 95 mL 200 mg amoxicillin and 28.5 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt 250 mg/5 mL 75 mL 100 mL 150 mL 65 mL 87 mL 130 mL 250 mg amoxicillin and 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt 400 mg/5 mL 50 mL 75 mL 100 mL 50 mL 70 mL 90 mL 400 mg amoxicillin and 57.0 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt Note: Shake oral suspension well before using. Reconstituted suspension must be stored under refrigeration and discarded after 10 days.

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Probenecid Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin but does not delay renal excretion of clavulanic acid. Concurrent use with AUGMENTIN may result in increased and prolonged blood concentrations of amoxicillin. Coadministration of probenecid is not recommended. Oral Anticoagulants Abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased international normalized ratio [INR]) has been reported in patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concurrently with AUGMENTIN. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation. Allopurinol The concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of amoxicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients. Oral Contraceptives AUGMENTIN may affect intestinal flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives. Effects on Laboratory Tests High urine concentrations of amoxicillin may result in false-positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using CLINITEST®, Benedict's Solution, or Fehling's Solution. Since this effect may also occur with AUGMENTIN, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used. Following administration of amoxicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone, and estradiol has been noted. Read the Augmentin Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of AUGMENTIN (amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium) and other antibacterial drugs, AUGMENTIN should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. AUGMENTIN® is a combination penicillin-class antibacterial and beta-lactamase inhibitor indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible isolates of the designated bacteria in the conditions listed below*: Lower Respiratory Tract Infections – caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Acute Bacterial Otitis Media – caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Sinusitis – caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Skin and Skin Structure Infections – caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella species. Urinary Tract Infections – caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species. Limitations of Use – When susceptibility test results show susceptibility to amoxicillin, indicating no beta-lactamase production, AUGMENTIN should not be used.

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Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions AUGMENTIN is contraindicated in patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin, clavulanate or to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins). Cholestatic Jaundice/Hepatic Dysfunction AUGMENTIN is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with AUGMENTIN. Last reviewed on RxList: 2/4/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required. A prospective study of 51 pediatric patients at a poison-control center suggested that overdosages of less than 250 mg/kg of amoxicillin are not associated with significant clinical symptoms1. Interstitial nephritis resulting in oliguric renal failure has been reported in patients after overdosage with amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium. Crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has also been reported after amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium overdosage in adult and pediatric patients. In case of overdosage, adequate fluid intake and diuresis should be maintained to reduce the risk of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium crystalluria. Renal impairment appears to be reversible with cessation of drug administration. High blood levels may occur more readily in patients with impaired renal function because of decreased renal clearance of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium. Amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium may be removed from circulation by hemodialysis. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]

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Dosage Forms And Strengths Tablets
  • 250-mg/125-mg Tablets: Each white oval film-coated tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN on one side and 250/125 on the other side, contains 250 mg amoxicillin and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.
  • 500-mg/125-mg Tablets: Each white oval film-coated tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN on one side and 500/125 on the other side, contains 500 mg amoxicillin and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.
  • 875-mg/125-mg Tablets: Each scored white capsule-shaped tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN 875 on one side and scored on the other side, contains 875 mg amoxicillin and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.
Powder for Oral Suspension
  • 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL: Banana-flavored powder for oral suspension (each 5 mL of reconstituted suspension contains 125 mg amoxicillin and 31.25 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt).
  • 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL: Orange-favored powder for oral suspension (each 5 mL of reconstituted suspension contains 200 mg amoxicillin and 28.5 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt).
  • 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL: Orange-flavored powder for oral suspension (each 5 mL of reconstituted suspension contains 250 mg amoxicillin and 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt).
  • 400 mg/57 mg per 5 mL Orange-flavored powder for oral suspension (each 5 mL of reconstituted suspension contains 400 mg amoxicillin and 57.0 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt).
Chewable Tablets
  • 125-mg/31.25-mg Chewable Tablets: Each mottled yellow, round, lemon-lime-flavored tablet, debossed with BMP 189 contains 125 mg amoxicillin and 31.25 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.
  • 200-mg/28.5 mg Chewable Tablets: Each mottled pink, round, biconvex cherrybanana-flavored tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN 200 contains 200 mg amoxicillin and 28.5 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.
  • 250-mg/62.5-mg Chewable Tablets: Each mottled yellow, round, lemon-lime-flavored tablet, debossed with BMP 190 contains 250 mg amoxicillin and 62.5 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.
  • 400-mg/57-mg Chewable Tablets: Each mottled pink, round, biconvex cherry-bananaflavored tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN 400 contains 400 mg amoxicillin and 57.0 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.
The 250-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN and the 250-mg chewable tablet should NOT be substituted for each other, as they are not interchangeable and the 250-mg tablet should not be used in children weighing less than 40 kg. The 250-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN and the 250-mg chewable tablet do not contain the same amount of clavulanic acid. The 250-mg tablet of AUGMENTIN contains 125 mg of clavulanic acid whereas the 250-mg chewable tablet contains 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid. Two 250 mg tablets of AUGMENTIN should NOT be substituted for one 500 mg tablet of AUGMENTIN. Since both the 250 mg and 500 mg tablets of AUGMENTIN contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (125 mg, as the potassium salt), two 250 mg tablets of AUGMENTIN are not equivalent to one 500 mg tablet of AUGMENTIN. Storage And Handling Tablets 250-mg/125-mg Tablets: Each white oval film-coated tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN on one side and 250/125 on the other side, contains 250 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt. NDC 43598-018-30 bottles of 30
NDC 43598-018-78 Unit Dose (10x10) 100 tablets 500-mg/125-mg Tablets: Each white oval film-coated tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN on one side and 500/125 on the other side, contains 500 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt. NDC 43598-006-14 bottles of 20
NDC 43598-006-78 Unit Dose (10x10) 100 tablets 875-mg/125-mg Tablets: Each scored white capsule-shaped tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN 875 on one side and scored on the other side, contains 875 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt. NDC 43598-021-14 bottles of 20
NDC 43598-021-78 Unit Dose (10x10) 100 tablets Powder for Oral Suspension: 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL: Banana-flavored powder for oral suspension (each 5 mL of reconstituted suspension contains 125 mg amoxicillin and 31.25 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt). NDC 43598-012-51 75 mL bottle
NDC 43598-012-52 100 mL bottle
NDC 43598-012-53 150 mL bottle 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL: Orange-favored powder for oral suspension (each 5 mL of reconstituted suspension contains 200 mg amoxicillin and 28.5 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt). NDC 43598-013-50 50 mL bottle
NDC 43598-013-51 75 mL bottle
NDC 43598-013-52 100 mL bottle 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL: Orange-flavored powder for oral suspension (each 5 mL of reconstituted suspension contains 250 mg amoxicillin and 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt). NDC 43598-004-51 75 mL bottle
NDC 43598-004-52 100 mL bottle
NDC 43598-004-53 150 mL bottle 400 mg/57 mg per 5 mL Orange-flavored powder for oral suspension (each 5 mL of reconstituted suspension contains 400 mg amoxicillin and 57.0 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt). NDC 43598-008-50 50 mL bottle
NDC 43598-008-51 75 mL bottle
NDC 43598-008-52 100 mL bottle Chewable Tablets 125-mg/31.25-mg Chewable Tablets: Each mottled yellow, round, lemon-lime-flavored tablet, debossed with BMP 189, contains 125 mg amoxicillin and 31.25 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt. NDC 43598-014-31 carton of 30 (5x6) tablets 200-mg/28.5 mg Chewable Tablets: Each mottled pink, round, biconvex, cherry-bananaflavored tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN 200, contains 200 mg amoxicillin and 28.5 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt. NDC 43598-015-14 carton of 20 tablets 250-mg/62.5-mg Chewable Tablets: Each mottled yellow, round, lemon-lime-flavored tablet, debossed with BMP 190, contains 250 mg amoxicillin and 62.5 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt. NDC 43598-016-31 carton of 30 (5x6) tablets 400-mg/57-mg Chewable Tablets: Each mottled pink, round, biconvex, cherry-banana-flavored tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN 400, contains 400 mg amoxicillin and 57.0 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt. NDC 43598-017-14 carton of 20 tablets Dispense in original container. Store tablets and dry powder at or below 25°C (77°F). Store reconstituted suspension under refrigeration. Discard unused suspension after 10 days. Keep out of the reach of children. Distributed by: Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Inc., Bridgewater, NJ 08807. Revised: 01/2013 Last reviewed on RxList: 2/4/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Hypersensitivity Reactions Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterials, including AUGMENTIN. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with AUGMENTIN, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, AUGMENTIN should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. Hepatic Dysfunction Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice has been associated with the use of AUGMENTIN. Hepatic toxicity is usually reversible; however, deaths have been reported. Hepatic function should be monitored at regular intervals in patients with hepatic impairment. Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea (CDAD) Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including AUGMENTIN, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile. C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over 2 months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated. Skin Rash in Patients with Mononucleosis A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive amoxicillin develop an erythematous skin rash. Thus, AUGMENTIN should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis. Potential for Microbial Overgrowth The possibility of superinfections with fungal or bacterial pathogens should be considered during therapy. If superinfection occurs, amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. Phenylketonurics AUGMENTIN Chewable tablets and AUGMENTIN Powder for Oral Solution contain aspartame which contains phenylalanine. Each 200-mg chewable tablet of AUGMENTIN contains 2.1 mg phenylalanine; each 400-mg chewable tablet contains 4.2 mg phenylalanine; each 5 mL of either the 200 mg/5 mL or 400 mg/5 mL oral suspension contains 7 mg phenylalanine. The other formulations of AUGMENTIN do not contain phenylalanine. Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria Prescribing AUGMENTIN in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient, and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential. AUGMENTIN (4:1 ratio formulation of amoxicillin:clavulanate) was non-mutagenic in the Ames bacterial mutation assay, and the yeast gene conversion assay. AUGMENTIN was weakly positive in the mouse lymphoma assay, but the trend toward increased mutation frequencies in this assay occurred at doses that were also associated with decreased cell survival. AUGMENTIN was negative in the mouse micronucleus test, and in the dominant lethal assay in mice. Potassium clavulanate alone was tested in the Ames bacterial mutation assay and in the mouse micronucleus test, and was negative in each of these assays. AUGMENTIN (2:1 ratio formulation of amoxicillin:clavulanate) at oral doses of up to 1,200 mg/kg/day was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance in rats. Based on body surface area, this dose of amoxicillin is approximately 4 times the maximum recommended adult human oral dose (875 mg every 12 hours). For clavulanate, the dose multiple is approximately 9 times higher than the maximum recommended adult human oral dose (125 mg every 8 hours), also based on body surface area. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies performed in pregnant rats and mice given AUGMENTIN (2:1 ratio formulation of amoxicillin:clavulanate) at oral doses up to 1200 mg/kg/day revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to AUGMENTIN. The amoxicillin doses in rats and mice (based on body surface area) were approximately 4 and 2 times the maximum recommended adult human oral dose (875 mg every 12 hours). For clavulanate, these dose multiples were approximately 9 and 4 times the maximum recommended adult human oral dose (125 mg every 8 hours). There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Labor and Delivery Oral ampicillin-class antibiotics are poorly absorbed during labor. It is not known whether use of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood of the necessity for an obstetrical intervention. Nursing Mothers Amoxicillin has been shown to be excreted in human milk. Amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium use by nursing mothers may lead to sensitization of infants. Caution should be exercised when amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of AUGMENTIN Powder for Oral Suspension and Chewable Tablets have been established in pediatric patients. Use of AUGMENTIN in pediatric patients is supported by evidence from studies of AUGMENTIN Tablets in adults with additional data from a study of AUGMENTIN Powder for Oral Suspension in pediatric patients aged 2 months to 12 years with acute otitis media. [see Clinical Studies] Because of incompletely developed renal function in neonates and young infants, the elimination of amoxicillin may be delayed; clavulanate elimination is unaltered in this age group. Dosing of AUGMENTIN should be modified in pediatric patients aged < 12 weeks ( < 3 months). [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION] Geriatric Use Of the 3,119 patients in an analysis of clinical studies of AUGMENTIN, 32% were ≥ 65 years old, and 14% were ≥ 75 years old. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. Dosing in Renal Impairment Amoxicillin is primarily eliminated by the kidney and dosage adjustment is usually required in patients with severe renal impairment (GFR < 30 mL/min). See Patients with Renal Impairment for specific recommendations in patients with renal impairment. Last reviewed on RxList: 2/4/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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