Drug: Augmentin XR

AUGMENTIN XR (amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium) extended release tablet for oral use is an antibacterial combination consisting of the semisynthetic antibacterial amoxicillin (present as amoxicillin trihydrate and amoxicillin sodium) and the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanate potassium (the potassium salt of clavulanic acid). Amoxicillin is an analog of ampicillin, derived from the basic penicillin nucleus 6-aminopenicillanic acid. The amoxicillin trihydrate molecular formula is C16H19N3O5S•3H2O, and the molecular weight is 419.45. Chemically, amoxicillin trihydrate is (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-Amino-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate and may be represented structurally as: The amoxicillin sodium molecular formula is C16H18N3NaO5S, and the molecular weight is 387.39. Chemically, amoxicillin sodium is [2 -[2α,5α,6β(S*)]]-6-[[Amino(4hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2carboxylic acid monosodium salt and may be represented structurally as: Clavulanic acid is produced by the fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus. It is a βlactam structurally related to the penicillins and possesses the ability to inactivate a wide variety of β-lactamases by blocking the active sites of these enzymes. Clavulanic acid is particularly active against the clinically important plasmid-mediated β-lactamases frequently responsible for transferred drug resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins. The clavulanate potassium molecular formula is C8H8KNO5, and the molecular weight is 237.25. Chemically, clavulanate potassium is potassium (Z)-(2R,5R)-3-(2-hydroxy ethylidene)-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]-heptane-2-carboxylate, and may be represented structurally as: Inactive Ingredients Citric acid, colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide, and xanthan gum. Each tablet of AUGMENTIN XR contains approximately 13 mg of potassium and 30 mg of sodium.

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The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
  • Anaphylactic reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Hepatic Dysfunction [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • CDAD [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In clinical trials, 5,643 patients have been treated with AUGMENTIN XR. The most frequently reported adverse reactions which were suspected or probably drug-related were diarrhea (15%), vaginal mycosis (3%) nausea (2%), and loose stools (2%). AUGMENTIN XR had a higher rate of diarrhea which required corrective therapy (4% versus 3% for AUGMENTIN XR and all comparators, respectively). Two percent of patients discontinued therapy because of drug-related adverse reactions. Postmarketing Experience In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the following have been identified during postmarketing use of AUGMENTIN products, including AUGMENTIN XR. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to AUGMENTIN. Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, indigestion, gastritis, stomatitis, glossitis, black “hairy” tongue, mucocutaneous candidiasis, enterocolitis, and hemorrhagic/pseudo membranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment. Hypersensitivity Reactions: Skin rashes, pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, serum sickness-like reactions (urticaria or skin rash accompanied by arthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, and frequently fever), erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, hypersensitivity vasculitis, and an occasional case of exfoliative dermatitis (including toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been reported [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Liver: A moderate rise in AST (SGOT) and/or ALT (SGPT) has been noted in patients treated with ampicillin-class antibiotics, but the significance of these findings is unknown. Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice, [see CONTRAINDICATIONS], increases in serum transaminases (AST and/or ALT), serum bilirubin, and/or alkaline phosphatase, has been reported with AUGMENTIN or AUGMENTIN XR. It has been reported more commonly in the elderly, in males, or in patients on prolonged treatment. The histologic findings on liver biopsy have consisted of predominantly cholestatic, hepatocellular, or mixed cholestatic-hepatocellular changes. The onset of signs/symptoms of hepatic dysfunction may occur during or several weeks after therapy has been discontinued. The hepatic dysfunction, which may be severe, is usually reversible. Deaths have been reported [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Renal: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, and crystalluria have been reported [see OVERDOSAGE]. Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Anemia, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported during therapy with penicillins. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena. There have been reports of increased prothrombin time in patients receiving AUGMENTIN and anticoagulant therapy concomitantly. Central Nervous System: Agitation, anxiety, behavioral changes, confusion, convulsions, dizziness, headache, insomnia, and reversible hyperactivity have been reported rarely. Miscellaneous: Tooth discoloration (brown, yellow, or gray staining) has been reported. Most reports occurred in pediatric patients. Discoloration was reduced or eliminated with brushing or dental cleaning in most cases. Read the Augmentin XR (amoxicillin clavulanic potassium) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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AUGMENTIN XR should be taken at the start of a meal to enhance the absorption of amoxicillin and to minimize the potential for gastrointestinal intolerance. AUGMENTIN XR is not recommended to be taken with a high-fat meal, because clavulanate absorption is decreased. [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Adults The recommended dose of AUGMENTIN XR is 4,000 mg/250 mg daily according to the following table: Indication Dose Duration Acute bacterial sinusitis 2 tablets q12h 10 days Community-acquired pneumonia 2 tablets q12h 7-10 days Tablets of AUGMENTIN (250 mg or 500 mg) CANNOT be used to provide the same dosages as AUGMENTIN XR Extended Release Tablets. This is because AUGMENTIN XR contains 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid, while the AUGMENTIN 250-mg and 500-mg tablets each contain 125 mg of clavulanic acid. In addition, the Extended Release Tablet provides an extended time course of plasma amoxicillin concentrations compared to immediate-release Tablets. Thus, two AUGMENTIN 500-mg tablets are not equivalent to one AUGMENTIN XR tablet. Scored AUGMENTIN XR Extended Release Tablets are available for adult patients who have difficulty swallowing. The scored tablet is not intended to reduce the dosage of medication taken; as stated in the table above, the recommended dose of AUGMENTIN XR is two tablets twice a day (every 12 hours). Renally Impaired Patients The pharmacokinetics of AUGMENTIN XR have not been studied in patients with renal impairment. AUGMENTIN XR is contraindicated in patients with a creatinine clearance of < 30 mL/min and in hemodialysis patients [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Hepatically Impaired Patients Hepatically impaired patients should be dosed with caution and hepatic function monitored at regular intervals [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Pediatric Use Pediatric patients who weigh 40 kg or more and can swallow tablets should receive the adult dose [see Use in Specific Populations]. Geriatric Use No dosage adjustment is required for the elderly [see Use In Specific Populations].

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Probenecid Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin. Concurrent use with AUGMENTIN XR may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of amoxicillin. Coadministration of probenecid is not recommended. Oral Anticoagulants Abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased international normalized ratio [INR]) has been reported in patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concurrently. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation. Allopurinol The concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin substantially increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of amoxicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients. In controlled clinical trials of AUGMENTIN XR, 25 patients received concomitant allopurinol and AUGMENTIN XR. No rashes were reported in these patients. However, this sample size is too small to allow for any conclusions to be drawn regarding the risk of rashes with concomitant AUGMENTIN XR and allopurinol use. Oral Contraceptives AUGMENTIN XR may affect intestinal flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives. Effects On Laboratory Tests High urine concentrations of amoxicillin may result in false-positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using CLINITEST®, Benedict's Solution, or Fehling's Solution. Since this effect may also occur with AUGMENTIN, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used. Following administration of amoxicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone, and estradiol has been noted Read the Augmentin XR Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of AUGMENTIN XR and other antibacterial drugs, AUGMENTIN XR should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. AUGMENTIN XR Extended Release Tablets are indicated for the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia or acute bacterial sinusitis due to confirmed, or suspected β-lactamase–producing pathogens (i.e., H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, H. parainfluenzae, K. pneumoniae, or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus) and S. pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to penicillin (i.e., penicillin MICs = 2 mcg/mL). AUGMENTIN XR is not indicated for the treatment of infections due to S. pneumoniae with penicillin MICs ≥ 4 mcg/mL. Data are limited with regard to infections due to S. pneumoniae with penicillin MICs ≥ 4 mcg/ml [see Clinical Studies]. In patients with community-acquired pneumonia in whom penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae is suspected, bacteriological studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility when AUGMENTIN XR is prescribed. Acute bacterial sinusitis or community-acquired pneumonia due to a penicillin-susceptible strain of S. pneumoniae plus a β-lactamase–producing pathogen can be treated with another AUGMENTIN® (amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium) product containing lower daily doses of amoxicillin (i.e., 500 mg every 8 hours or 875 mg every 12 hours). Acute bacterial sinusitis or community-acquired pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae alone can be treated with amoxicillin.

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Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions AUGMENTIN XR is contraindicated in patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin, clavulanate or to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins). Cholestatic Jaundice/Hepatic Dysfunction Augmentin XR is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium. Renal Impairment AUGMENTIN XR is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) and in hemodialysis patients. Last reviewed on RxList: 4/25/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Following overdosage, patients have experienced primarily gastrointestinal symptoms including stomach and abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Rash, hyperactivity, or drowsiness have also been observed in a small number of patients. In the case of overdosage, discontinue AUGMENTIN XR, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required. If the overdosage is very recent and there is no contraindication, an attempt at emesis or other means of removal of drug from the stomach may be performed. A prospective study of 51 pediatric patients at a poison control center suggested that overdosages of less than 250 mg/kg of amoxicillin are not associated with significant clinical symptoms and do not require gastric emptying5. Interstitial nephritis resulting in oliguric renal failure has been reported in a small number of patients after overdosage with amoxicillin. Crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has also been reported after amoxicillin overdosage in adult and pediatric patients. In the case of overdosage, adequate fluid intake and diuresis should be maintained to reduce the risk of amoxicillin crystalluria. Renal impairment appears to be reversible with cessation of drug administration. High blood levels may occur more readily in patients with impaired renal function because of decreased renal clearance of both amoxicillin and clavulanate. Both amoxicillin and clavulanate are removed from the circulation by hemodialysis [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

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Dosage Forms And Strengths AUGMENTIN XR Extended Release Tablets Each white, oval film-coated bilayer scored tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN XR, contains amoxicillin trihydrate and amoxicillin sodium equivalent to a total of 1,000 mg of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium equivalent to 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid. Storage And Handling AUGMENTIN XR Extended Release Tablets: Each white, oval film-coated bilayer scored tablet, debossed with AUGMENTIN XR, contains amoxicillin trihydrate and amoxicillin sodium equivalent to a total of 1,000 mg of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium equivalent to 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid. NDC 43598-020-28 Bottles of 28 (7 day XR pack)
NDC 43598-020-40 Bottles of 40 (10 day XR pack) Storage Dispense in original container. Store tablets at or below 25°C (77°F). Keep out of reach of children. Manufactured by: Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Tennessee LLC, Bristol, TN 37620. Revised: April 2014 Last reviewed on RxList: 4/25/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Serious Allergic Reactions, Including Anaphylaxis Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving AUGMENTIN XR. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with AUGMENTIN XR, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, AUGMENTIN XR should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. Hepatic Dysfunction AUGMENTIN XR should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic dysfunction. Hepatic toxicity associated with the use of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium is usually reversible. Deaths have been reported (fewer than 1 death reported per estimated 4 million prescriptions worldwide). These have generally been cases associated with serious underlying diseases or concomitant medications [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including AUGMENTIN XR, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile. C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated. Skin Rash In Patients With Mononucleosis A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive amoxicillin develop an erythematous skin rash. Thus, AUGMENTIN XR should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis. Potential For Microbial Overgrowth The possibility of superinfections with mycotic or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. If superinfections occur (usually involving Pseudomonas spp. or Candida spp.), the drug should be discontinued and/or appropriate therapy instituted. Development Of Drug-Resistant Bacteria Prescribing AUGMENTIN XR in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Patient Counseling Information Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION) Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential. The mutagenic potential of AUGMENTIN was investigated in vitro with an Ames test, a human lymphocyte cytogenetic assay, a yeast test, and a mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, and in vivo with mouse micronucleus tests and a dominant lethal test. All were negative apart from the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay, where weak activity was found at very high, cytotoxic concentrations. AUGMENTIN at oral doses of up to 1,200 mg/kg/day (1.9 times the maximum human dose of amoxicillin and 15 times the maximum human dose of clavulanate based on body surface area) was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance in rats dosed with a 2:1 ratio formulation of amoxicillin:clavulanate. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies performed in pregnant rats and mice given AUGMENTIN at oral doses up to 1,200 mg/kg/day revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to AUGMENTIN. In terms of body surface area, the doses in rats were 1.6 times the maximum human oral dose of amoxicillin and 13 times the maximum human dose for clavulanate. For mice, these doses were 0.9 and 7.4 times the maximum human oral dose of amoxicillin and clavulanate, respectively. There are, however, no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Labor And Delivery Oral ampicillin is poorly absorbed during labor. Studies in guinea pigs have shown that intravenous administration of ampicillin decreased the uterine tone, frequency of contractions, height of contractions, and duration of contractions. However, it is not known whether the use of AUGMENTIN XR in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood that forceps delivery or other obstetrical intervention or resuscitation of the newborn will be necessary. In a single study in women with premature rupture of fetal membranes, it was reported that prophylactic treatment with AUGMENTIN may be associated with an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates Nursing Mothers Amoxicillin has been shown to be excreted in human milk; therefore, caution should be exercised when AUGMENTIN XR is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of AUGMENTIN XR have been established for pediatric patients weighing ≥ 40 kg who are able to swallow tablets. Use of AUGMENTIN XR in these pediatric patients is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled trials of adults with acute bacterial sinusitis and community-acquired pneumonia with additional data from a pediatric pharmacokinetic study. A pharmacokinetic study in pediatric patients (7 to 15 years of age and weighing ≥ 40 kg) was conducted [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. The adverse event profile in 44 pediatric patients who received at least one dose of AUGMENTIN XR was consistent with the established adverse event profile for the product in adults. Geriatric Use Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of AUGMENTIN XR, 18% were 65 years or older and 7% were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety and effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other clinical experience has not reported differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but a greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of dose dependent toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, it may be useful to monitor renal function. Renal Impairment The pharmacokinetics of AUGMENTIN XR have not been studied in patients with renal impairment. AUGMENTIN XR is contraindicated in patients with a creatinine clearance of < 30 mL/min and in hemodialysis patients [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Hepatic Impairment Hepatically impaired patients should be dosed with caution and hepatic function monitored at regular intervals [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Last reviewed on RxList: 4/25/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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