Deformity of spine is any abnormality of the formation, alignment, or shape of the vertebral column.
Other names for deformity of spine include:
The spine is made up of over 25 small bones called vertebrae that support the upper body. The cervical spine (C-spine) is the upper portion, comprised of seven vertebrae. It supports the neck and head. The thoracic spine (T-spine) is comprised of 12 vertebrae, which connect to the rib cage and support the torso. The lumbar spine (L-spine) has five large vertebrae that support most of the body's mass and weight. The sacrum is the base of the spine, and in most people is comprised of 2-4 partially fused bones terminating in the coccyx within the pelvis. The normal human spine has gentle curvatures, but when those curves are exaggerated, extreme, or displaced they are considered deformities.
Some deformities are subtle and not easily detected in a growing child. Some signs are:
Fatigue may be reported with prolonged periods of sitting and standing.
Diagnoses that are associated with spine deformity include:
A physical examination by your doctor is necessary to determine if a deformity of the spine is present. Screening evaluations of children are routinely done in physician offices and at schools. A scoliometer is used to measure the degree of curvature in the spine. However, the results are not completely accurate. X-rays are done when spinal deformities are suspected. An MRI may be done if further investigation is needed.
Treatment depends on the diagnosis and the severity of the deformity. Any underlying illness or injury resulting in the deformity requires prompt attention. Treatment for curvatures may include bracing or surgery. Braces are worn under clothes to support the spine in correct anatomical position. Referral to an orthotist who measures, fits the brace, and provides support and feedback to the patient and clinical team will be necessary. Surgery is recommended in cases where there is severe pain, neurological problems, or curvature greater than 50 degrees. Several surgical techniques are used to treat deformities of the spine.
Non-surgical management through exercise, building muscle strength and tone, and weight maintenance has been found to be beneficial to patients with some types of spinal deformities. Physical therapy may be part of a team approach to the treatment plan for deformities of the spine. Biofeedback has been used to improve posture.